Unusual Self Portrait

I made a self portrait with the “unusual soft skill” we introduced ourselves in the first class.

code
play

An interesting synchronous online platform I recently paid attention to was yy.com. It is an online live streaming platform where anyone can register and start streaming, meanwhile the audience who watch the streaming have the opportunity to not only comment, click “like”s, give flowers, but also donate actual money. I was introduced to it because a friend of mine was making a documentary about the interactions happening on and off this platform, between rich and poor, between the beautiful girls streaming and the migrant workers who worship her and donate half of his monthly wage to her. Because of the involvement of finance, this platform reflects some real social interactions in modern China. Beyond that, having all those interactions happening within one screen seemed also challenging to me, technically.

Speak Like an Immigrant – rwet final

For the final project of rwet, I decided to continue the process of creating poetic visual structures using space. I’ve been building more or less on the same structure this semester:


(Taking two articles from different sources about the same content, randomize them, and piece them together)


(Simulating the shape of the crack in Antarctic Ice Shelf)


(Text message style conversation)

For the content, I wanted to simulate the experience of speaking English as a foreign language. To maximize the effect, I chose to create the form of a “dialogue” between two parties: one speaking English as a native speaker, the other as a foreigner. I decided to build my program around source texts that are “dramatically American”. For example, a few texts I tried are the U.S. Constitution, the lyrics of Star-Spangled Banner, and the Declaration of Independence.

“We the People of the United States
in Order to form a more perfect Union
establish Justice
insure domestic Tranquility
provide for the common defence
promote the general Welfare
and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity
do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America “

I also did some research on some common mistakes people make when speaking English as a foreign language. They include:

1. the missing of “the”s and “a”s
2. the mis-use of pronouns, prepositions
3. the difference between singular and plural forms
4. the changing between tenses

Therefore, I made changes to the “immigrant” part of the poem accordingly.

Below are a few outcomes I enjoyed (source taken from the U.S. Constitution):

View code on github

Programming method:

I used space/an empty string to create the gap between the left and the right part. For the first “stanza”, the left “American” part was the original source text

Some alternative project proposals (about air pollution)

1.

I tried to think of the “fluid nature” of air pollution: that products and nations have borders but pollution in the air do not. I thought about combining the map of air/wind traveling across the globe and the map of export/import products from China to the U.S.:


(goods map)


(wind map)


(combined map)

2.

An alternative pricing system that reflects the real price of imported products. On the labels there mark the price of fixing the damages cost by air pollution, and the “actual cost” of the products. I am deciding between an online version of labels and the real physical labels.

In terms of the products, I found out some of the largest manufacturing companies from the U.S. in China, including General Motors, Ford, Hewlett-Packard, etc. If the project lives online, it will be an alternative shopping page of some of these companies’ products.

3.

A matching visualization of U.S. largest import industries from China, matched with chemicals that make up the components of air pollution:

4.

Some of my sources:

http://www.worldsrichestcountries.com/top_us_imports.html
http://www.worldstopexports.com/chinas-top-10-exports/
https://www.usitc.gov/research_and_analysis/tradeshifts/2012/electronic.htm
http://www.chinaimportal.com/blog/how-to-import-electronics-from-china/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_manufacturing_companies_by_revenue

Final Project Proposal

For the past weeks I’ve been building (more or less) on the same structure of texts. I take two very different texts and place them together, or I separate one text into two different ones. For the final project I would like to continue working on this concept. Below are two examples respectively:

Language Neutralizer (two different texts side by side):

Speak Like an Immigrant (the same text taken apart into two):


This week I’ve been playing with spaCy using Trump’s and Obama’s inauguration speeches:

Binary Tree in Colors

I experimented the search method of “binary tree” with color visualizations:

The lines cross the width and the height of the canvas represents the starting point of the visualization. The size and the opacity of the circles are decided by the random input. Instead of letting them grow to the left and right like in a traditional “binary tree” diagram, I placed them from bottom left to upper right. I think this would be a good base for data visualization in the future.

View code: https://github.com/shelleyhu123/Binary-Tree-in-Colors

Social Design

I think the biggest social problem, universally, is disconnection. Let it be disconnection from oneself (eg. depression), of different human beings (eg. wars), or between human and nature (eg. disruption of the environment). There are many great designers trying to help us to connect with each other, to drop the phones or to start a conversation with strangers, but personally, I see connections we have with others inseparable with those we have with our natural environment.

Therefore, my question becomes, is there a good metaphor to address both disconnections? The first one came to my mind is, once again, air pollution.

I try not to isolate any social issues, as I remind myself any problem is the outcome of more than one system. In the case of air pollution (in China particularly), of course it is a result of industrialization (coal-fired power plants), urbanization (the surge of car ownership), and the lack of environmental consciousness; in the meantime, however, it is undeniably an ugly child of the global economic system.

During my research, I studied air pollution that has occurred in other regions in the past (London, L.A., etc.). One interesting thing that came up was that the U.K. “solved” their 1950s “Pea Soup Fog” not only because they discovered oil and gas drilling in the North Sea, but also, some British manufacture factories were transferred overseas (to developing countries mostly) so the need of power supplies have dropped.

The essay Global Environment and International Inequality by Henry Shue, published in 1999, has specifically pointed out the relationship between capitalism, colonialism and today’s environmental injustice. It argues that developed countries should shoulder the responsibilities of fixing environmental issues in developing countries, for they have taken advantage and planted the seeds of pollution in the past. This led me to think, what role does capitalism play in China’s air pollution?

A big one, of course. “We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. ” (from Beijing University’s study China’s international trade and air pollution in the United States) The scientists gave this particular type of emission a name: Consumption-Based Emission.

So there is the cross point of my two lines: disconnection between humans and our disconnection with the environment. Exporting and importing so many products that we don’t even need to begin with, we are not just wasting materials, but also contributing to air pollution. At the same time, ordinary consumers in the U.S. have no idea a dress they bought from Forever 21 is causing so much death to people on the other side of the world. How could I address the problem?

Proposal

Instead of hipsters living in Brooklyn, I am especially interested in talking to those who are more different from myself, for example, white American families from the Midwest. These are my audience who have less knowledge about the effect of climate change, the possible damage of capitalism, or China in general. I want to raise questions about environmental justice, people’s consuming habits, and hopefully bridge some gap between the different groups of people.

My proposal is a shopdropping project. Shopdropping refers to the public art that “sneaks specifically marked items into a shop and places them on display”.

Some shopdropping art:


What I’m going to do:

First, grocery stores and malls in the midwest are huge, one can easily get lost in there:

Now, imagine yourself picking up items in the ocean of products, and you see this:

Would you be intrigued? Why are words “MADE IN CHINA” on top of the products instead of hiding in the back? And with such nice font? Would you pay a moderate price for something like this, just to satisfy your curiosity?

It turned out, the package contains several “ingredients”, telling the story of China’s air pollution: you may find nicely packed sulphur, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or some coal dust.

Air Pollution Research in Progress and Draft Proposal


(A data visualization I made along the way of research)

I started this week’s research by reaching out to experts.

I first reached out to Earth Justice, a team of lawyers fighting for environmental justice. I thought maybe I could start with the solutions of the problem: legislations. I mainly looked at the Coal Program, where the lawyers tried to look at energy and shut down power plants in the U.S.. In one of the statements, the lawyers stated that: “For decades, the coal industry has manage to avoid cleaning up its mess by hiring well-paid lobbyists and lawyers to create and exploit loopholes in our nation’s environmental laws. Such efforts have allowed coal power to appear artificially “cheap”.”

So coal is not actually cheap? I wonder, why do we have the impression that it is? From here, I dug deeper into the production of coal. I went to the EIA (Energy Information Administration) website where I found different types of coal used in the U.S.: anthracite, bituminous coal, sub-bituminous coal, and lignite (ranked from the highest carbon to the lowest). Through my past research, I’ve known that a large number of coal used in trucks in China is lignite, which produces the worst air pollution due to its relatively “young age”.

Intrigued by the diagrams, I went to look at transportation use of energy in China. I found a very useful report (yet I suspect a bit biased) from 2003, Personal Cars and China. 2003 was still before the explosion of car-ownership in China, however the authors are already looking at the issue of future air pollution. A few important points:

– “The real inefficiency lies in the fuel wasted because of urban congestion.” (When stuck in traffic, cars emit more sulfur)

– The use of diesel in trucks:

– “Chinese crude oils have less naphtha, the feedstock for the catalytic reforming process, than most foreign crudes. Therefore, one feature of the Chinese petroleum refining industry is that its catalytic cracking capacity is much greater than its capacities for catalytic reforming and catalytic hydrotreating. The principal characteristics of Chinese gasoline are a high olefin and sulfur content; likewise, Chinese diesel fuel has a high sulfur content. ” (This sounded to me a bit biased by just blaming the problem on the nature of “Chinese crude oil”, when, I think, import is possible?)

Knowing the extreme damage of diesel, I looked more into personal cars in China (which use gasoline) verses heavy duty trucks (which use coal and diesel). The answer to polluted air was as expected:

“Almost 80% of fine particulate matter, known as PM2.5, emitted from vehicles in China comes from diesel-powered trucks, which represent less than a fifth of the country’s vehicle fleet.” Chinese government, however, have long placed the burden of relieving pollution onto ordinary citizens…

At this point, I felt a bit stuck at the transportation direction. I decided to steer away to other experts. I reached out to Professor George Thurston at NYU, who was a known expert on air pollution and its health impact. In his essays and interviews, he introduced the harm of PM2.5, PM10, and the reasons our bodies can’t defeat them: PM2.5 came from coal fired power plants which contain the highest concentration of coal and all kinds of other metal, and because of the concentration, they are much smaller than the particles our bodies are used to fight with.

Another interesting point I found in Thurston’s views is a shift of cost burden.  He said, “the costs are already there because air pollution is causing people to go to the hospital, see their doctor, develop diseases like asthma and cancer. The costs are already visited on the public. What we’re talking about here is moving costs from the public to the polluters.”

I immediately became interested in the concept of “shift of cost burden”. I have always heard people saying “the power plants are the foundation of Chinese economy” (so we can sacrifice the environment). I wonder, what really is the role of economy in China’s air pollution problem?

This question has then opened the Pandora Box for me. I found two pieces of articles particularly interesting: Assessment of China’s virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by a consumption-based emission inventory and China’s international trade and air pollution in the United States. Both essays argue the relationship between importing and exporting Chinese goods (domestically and internationally) and the emission of pollution, offering the “consumption-based accounting of emissions, rather than just production-based”. The latter especially looked at the impact of U.S. – China trade. “We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. ” (from Jintai Lin, a professor at Peiking University, another expert I reached out to)

I found this argument fascinating because I see the interaction of systems here. Of course the capitalism/colonialism system and the environmental system are intertwined. Of course there has to be a demand for China’s production (and it turns out that 20% of Chinese manufactured goods go to the U.S.). I also remembered how the British finally “solved” London’s air pollution: they moved their power plants away to other countries… I am now reading Global Environment and International Inequality by Henry Shue, published in 1999, hoping to understand the ties stronger.

Proposal

A group of Chinese manufactured goods travel across the world, coming to the U.S. They package themselves well so they can fit into the Mid-West malls. They want to be picked up just like any other goods made in China. They have intriguing packaging but they don’t spoil the surprise. Inside, they contain a collection of Chinese stories about the air: like the one with PM2.5, the one with the masks, or the one with the breath of fresh air…